Tag: education

Introduction to Doors

Introduction to Doors

Today we learn about the history of doors, as well as construction and installation.  These slides are part of a powerpoint presentation created by shop teacher Tom Bockman.  If you would like to view the entire presentation, take a look at our YouTube channel.

Prior to the late 1700’s, doors were held in place with little more than nails and strap hinges.  Door latches were primitive and didn’t have a way to lock.  Iron smiths developed strong metal latches to keep doors closed.  To keep buildings more secure, locking mechanisms were eventually developed.

The first time screws could be mass-produced was when English brothers Job and William Wyatt developed the first automated factory.  Early screws didn’t have points until New England mechanic Colin Whipple developed the first sharp point screw.

Door parts:

  • Glazing bar – another name for Muntin
  • Header – transfers the weight above it to the floor and foundation below
  • Muntin – a divider that carries weight
  • Mullion – a vertical divider for windows
  • Sweep  – seals gaps between the bottom of the door and the threshold.
  • Threshold – sloped cross piece that extends across the bottom of the door area

With a factory manufactured pre-hung door hinges attach the door to the preassembled jambs, and the sill and jambs are braced to keep the whole assembly square until the door is installed.  Before nailing the jambs it’s very important to make sure the door fits squarely in the opening and that the jambs are plumb, both from side to side and from front to back.  Drive pairs of tapered wooden shims between the jambs and the trimmer studs (if the casing is attached to the jambs, insert shims from the open side) to adjust the unit and hold it in place until you nail it.

Pre-hung doors are calibrated to perfectly fit the door frame.  A slab door is a little more difficult to hang.

Adjust the shims and re-nail the door. Install the lockset. Drive the nails almost flush, and then set the heads with a nailset. Cut off the shims flush with the jambs. Apply casing to cover the shims and space.

Using adhesives pt. 2

Using adhesives pt. 2

In the first part of this series we learned about multipurpose adhesives.  Today we learn about wood and plastic glues, along with some basic tips. If you would like to view the entire presentation, take a look at our YouTube channel.

Wood Glues

Wood glues are specifically made for wood repair projects. Here are your main choices:

Yellow glue (aliphatic resin or carpenters’ glue): Aliphatic resin glue is a yellow liquid, usually sold in plastic squeeze bottles and often labeled as carpenters’ glue. Yellow glue is very similar to white glue but forms a slightly stronger bond. It is also slightly more water resistant than white glue. Clamping is required for about 30 minutes until the glue sets; curing time is 12 to 18 hours. Yellow glue dries clear but does not accept wood stains.

yellow glue

Plastic resin glue (urea formaldehyde): Plastic resin glue is recommended for laminating layers of wood and for gluing structural joints. It is water resistant but not waterproof and isn’t recommended for use on outdoor furniture. This glue is resistant to paint and lacquer thinners. Clamping is required for up to 8 hours; curing time is 18 to 24 hours.

Resorcinol glue: This glue is waterproof and forms strong and durable bonds. It is recommended for use on outdoor furniture, kitchen counters, structural bonding, boats, and sporting gear. It can also be used on concrete, cork, fabrics, leather, and some plastics. Resorcinol glue has excellent resistance to temperature extremes, chemicals, and fungus. Clamping is required; curing time is 8 to 24 hours, depending on humidity and temperature.

Adhesives for Glass and Ceramics

Most multipurpose adhesives will bond glass and ceramics, but specialized versions often bond them more securely.

China and glass cement: Many cements are sold for mending china and glass. These cements usually come in tubes. Acrylic latex-base cements have good resistance to water and heat. Clamping is usually required.

Silicone rubber adhesives: Only silicone adhesives made specifically for glass and china are recommended. They form very strong bonds, with excellent resistance to water and temperature extremes. Clamping is usually required.


Metal Adhesives and Fillers

Need to make a repair in metal? Here are some popular adhesives that can make a strong bond with metal:

Steel epoxy: A two-part compound sold in tubes, steel epoxy is quite similar to regular epoxy. It forms a very strong, durable, heat-and water-resistant bond and is recommended for patching gutters and gas tanks, sealing pipes, and filling rust holes. Drying time is about 12 hours; curing time is one to two days.

Steel Putty: This metal putty consists of two putty-consistency parts that are kneaded together before use. It forms a strong, water-resistant bond and is recommended for patching and sealing pipes that aren’t under pressure. It can also be used for ceramic and masonry. Curing time is about 30 minutes; when dry, it can be sanded or painted.

Plastic metal cement: Plastic metal is one-part adhesive and filler. It is moisture resistant but cannot withstand temperature extremes. This type of adhesive is recommended for use on metal, glass, concrete, and wood, where strength is not required. Curing time is about four hours; when dry, plastic metal cement can be sanded or painted.

Plastic Adhesives

Plastics present a special problem with some adhesives because solvents in the adhesives can dissolve plastic. Here are some popular plastic adhesives.

Model cement: Usually sold in tubes as “model maker” glues, model cement forms a strong bond on acrylics and polystyrenes and can be used on most plastics, except plastic foam. Clamping is usually required until the cement has set (about 10 minutes); curing time is about 24 hours. Model cement dries clear.

Vinyl adhesive: Vinyl adhesives, sold in tubes, form a strong, waterproof bond on vinyl and on many plastics, but don’t use them on plastic foam. Clamping is usually not required. Vinyl adhesive dries flexible and clear; curing time is 10 to 20 minutes.

Acrylic solvent: Solvents are not adhesives as such; they act by melting the acrylic bonding surfaces, fusing them together at the joint. They are recommended for use on acrylics and polycarbonates. Clamping is required; the bonding surfaces are clamped or taped together, and the solvent is injected into the joint with a syringe. Setting time is about five minutes.

Glue Failure

Here are some causes of glue failure:

Hopefully you now have a basic understanding of how to identify and use adhesives.  As previously mentioned, you can view the YouTube video containing the full powerpoint presentation HERE.  We would greatly appreciate you subscribing to our channel. If there are any particular topics you would like to see covered please Send us an email.

Using adhesives pt. 1

Using adhesives pt. 1

Join us as we learn about using adhesives for your projects!  These slides are part of a powerpoint presentation created by shop teacher Tom Bockman.  If you would like to view the entire presentation, take a look at our YouTube channel.  A copy of the entire Woodworking curriculum is available and will be listed for sale soon.  Email us if you are interested.

Adhesives chemically attach two or more surfaces together. The right adhesive can make any fix quicker and longer lasting.

Multipurpose Adhesives

If you keep a small assortment of multipurpose adhesives in stock you will be able to make a wide variety of repairs. Follow along as we learn the most common types of multipurpose adhesives!

White glue (polyvinyl acetate, or PVA): PVA glue is a white liquid, usually sold in plastic bottles. It is recommended for use on porous materials — wood, paper, cloth, porous pottery, and nonstructural wood-to-wood bonds. It is not water resistant. Clamping is required for 30 minutes to 1 hour to set the glue; curing time is 18 to 24 hours. School glue, a type of white glue, dries more slowly. Inexpensive and nonflammable, PVA glue dries clear.

PVA (white glue) has a low resistance to moisture but a long shelf life.

Epoxy: Epoxies are sold in tubes or in cans. They consist of two parts — resin and hardener — that must be thoroughly mixed just before use. They are very strong, very durable, and very water resistant. Epoxies are recommended for use on metal, ceramics, some plastics, and rubber; they aren’t recommended for flexible surfaces. Clamping is required for about 2 hours for most epoxies. Drying time is about 12 hours; curing time is one to two days. Epoxy dries clear or amber and is more expensive than other adhesives.

epoxy is very strong and waterproof


Cyanoacrylate: Also called super or instant glue, cyanoacrylate is similar to epoxy but is a one-part glue. These glues form a very strong bond and are recommended for use on materials such as metal, ceramics, glass, some plastics, and rubber; they aren’t recommended for flexible surfaces. Apply sparingly. Clamping is not required; curing time is one to two days. Cyanoacrylates dry clear.

Contact cement: A rubber-base liquid sold in bottles and cans, contact cement is recommended for bonding laminates, veneers, and other large areas and for repairs. It can also be used on paper, leather, cloth, rubber, metal, glass, and some plastics because it remains flexible when it dries. It is not recommended for repairs where strength is necessary. Contact cement should be applied to both surfaces and allowed to set; the surfaces are then pressed together for an instant bond. No repositioning is possible once contact has been made. Clamping isn’t required; curing is complete on drying. Contact cement is usually very flammable.

contact cement can be used on laminate

Polyurethane glue: This high-strength glue is an amber paste and is sold in tubes. It forms a very strong bond similar to that of epoxy. Polyurethane glue is recommended for use on wood, metal, ceramics, glass, most plastics, and fiberglass. It dries flexible and can also be used on leather, cloth, rubber, and vinyl. Clamping is required for about 2 hours; curing time is about 24 hours. Polyurethane glue dries translucent and can be painted or stained. Its shelf life is short, and it is expensive.

Silicone rubber adhesive or sealant: Silicone rubber glues and sealants are sold in tubes and are similar to silicone rubber caulk. They form very strong, very durable waterproof bonds, with excellent resistance to high and low temperatures. They’re recommended for use on gutters and on building materials, including metal, glass, fiberglass, rubber, and wood. They can also be used on fabrics, some plastics, and ceramics. Clamping is usually not required; curing time is about 24 hours, but the adhesive skins over in less than 1 hour. Silicone rubber adhesives dry flexible and are available in clear, black, and metal colors.

liquid nails can be used for heavy duty construction jobs

Household cement: The various adhesives sold in tubes as household cement are fast-setting, low-strength glues. They are recommended for use on wood, ceramics, glass, paper, and some plastics. Some household cements dry flexible and can be used on fabric, leather, and vinyl. Clamping is usually not required; setting time is 10 to 20 minutes, curing time is up to 24 hours.

Hot-melt adhesive: Hot-melt glues are sold in stick form and are used with glue guns. A glue gun heats the adhesive above 200F. For the best bond, the surfaces to be joined should also be preheated. Because hot-melt adhesives are only moderately strong and bonds will come apart if exposed to high temperatures, this type of glue is recommended for temporary bonds of wood, metal, paper, and some plastics and composition materials. Clamping isn’t required; setting time is 10 to 45 seconds, and curing time is 24 hours.

Don't use a hot-glue gun if the bond will be exposed to high temperatures

We don’t want this article to be too long, so this will be a multi-part series on using adhesives.  Stay tuned and don’t forget to follow us on Instagram and other social media networks!

Our YouTube channel is now live!

Our YouTube channel is now live!

Our YouTube channel is live!  We have two videos available with more to come soon.  There is an Introduction to Foundations course, and a Drywall course created by shop teacher of 37 years Tom Bockman. Here is the link: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCG6NPSuCt9XEUdAzttOvycw

The videos have no audio, so they could be used in a classroom setting with narration from the instructor and by pausing the videos you could have discussions on the content.  If there is any interest in receiving the powerpoint files email us at social@shopclasskids.com.  These are not only useful for current instructors but for parents wanting to educate their kids or for self-directed learning.  We will make more materials available as time allows (i.e. handouts, quizzes, etc…)

We will be adding videos often so please subscribe!  If there are any particular subjects you want to see covered then please let us know.

Free online woodworking class!

Free online woodworking class!

We at Shop Class Kids are big fans of Instructables.com  There are so many cool DIY projects there and they also offer free classes!

Author mikeasaurus has a 9 lesson course on basic woodworking.  Here is a list of the lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Tools + Supplies

  • Lesson 2: Making Perfectly Straight Cuts

  • Lesson 3: All About Glue

  • Lesson 4: Drilling Perfect Holes

  • Lesson 5: Sanding

  • Lesson 6: Wood Shaping

  • Lesson 7: Hand Router

  • Lesson 8: Bevels and Mitres

  • Lesson 9: Color + Finishes

There is some really good information in there, and it’s all free!  CLICK HERE to see the course.

Working with wood & tools

Working with wood & tools

We’ve stumbled upon the 4-H Wood Science series and wow, what a resource for parents and children alike!  Regardless of your age, if you are new to woodworking, we feel you will find this an excellent resource.  There are instructions and pictures of how to measure and mark, saw boards, drive and pull nails, sand wood, build things and use glue and finishes.

There is too much to list everything here, but for example we learn about using coping saws:

The publication mentions the various ways to use a coping saw.

Elsewhere we learn to sand with the grain.

Sanding with the grain produces a flat surface.

Also we learn about driving and pulling nails.

Nails are ordered by “penny” size.

There are also beginner projects listed in the book.  Creating a sandpaper block, a letter holder, stilts(!) and a rabbit puzzle, among other things.  We at Shop Class Kids don’t care about your age, if you are a beginning woodworker, this free publication is an excellent place to start!